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Hopfield networks
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Hopfield networks

One of the earliest recurrent neural networks reported in literature was the auto-associator independently described by Anderson and Kohonen. The auto-associator network. All neurons are both input and output neurons, i.e., a pattern is clamped, the network iterates to a stable state, and the output of the network consists of the new activation values of the neurons. The Hopfield network is created by supplying input data vectors, or pattern vectors, corresponding to the different classes. These patterns are called class patterns. In an n-dimensional data space the class patterns should have n binary components {1,-1}; that is, each class pattern corresponds to a corner of a cube in an n-dimensional space. The network is then used to classify distorted patterns into these classes. When a distorted pattern is presented to the network, then it is associated with another pattern. If the network works properly, this associated pattern is one of the class patterns. In some cases (when the different class patterns are correlated), spurious minima can also appear. This means that some patterns are associated with patterns that are not among the pattern vectors. Hopfield networks are sometimes called associative networks since they associate a class pattern to each input pattern.
Use of the Hopfield network
The way in which the Hopfield network is used is as follows. A pattern is entered in the network by setting all nodes to a specific value, or by setting only part of the nodes. The network is then subject to a number of iterations using asynchronous or synchronous updating. This is stopped after a while. The network neurons are then read out to see which pattern is in the network. The idea behind the Hopfield network is that patterns are stored in the weight matrix. The input must contain part of these patterns. The dynamics of the network then retrieve the patterns stored in the weight matrix. This is called Content Addressable Memory (CAM). The network can also be used for auto-association. The patterns that are stored in the network are divided in two parts: cue and association. By entering the cue into the network, the entire pattern, which is stored in the weight matrix, is retrieved. In this way the network restores the association that belongs to a given cue.

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