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cruise missile technology
25-02-2011, 07:41 PM
Post: #1
cruise missile technology
sir please provide a detailed information about cruise missile technology..

12-05-2011, 11:04 AM
Post: #2
RE: cruise missile technology
Vivek S.

Cruise missile technology “GUIDANCE SYSTEMS”
A cruise missile is basically a small, pilotless airplane. Cruise missiles have an 8.5-foot (2.61-meter) wingspan, are powered by turbofan engines and can fly 500 to 1,000 miles (805 to 1,610 km) depending on the configuration. A cruise missile's job in life is to deliver a 1,000-pound (450-kg) high-explosive bomb to a precise location -- the target.
Tomahawk Cruise missile
General design:
Guidance systems:

The purpose of a guidance system is to direct the missile to target .
Guidance systems vary greatly.
Use of an automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm/device in the guidance system increases accuracy of the missile.
Types of guidance systems:
Inertial navigation system
TERCOM (Terrain Contour Matching)
DSMAC (Digital Scene-Mapping Area Correlator)
Satellite navigation
Inertial navigation system:
An inertial navigation system includes at least a computer and a platform containing accelerometers, gyroscopes, or other motion-sensing devices.
Accelerometers measure the vertical, lateral, and longitudinal accelerations of the controlled missile .
Gyroscopes measure the angular velocity of the system.
Inertial navigation system:
Tercom(Terrain contour matching):
It uses a pre-recorded contour map of the terrain that is compared to measurements made during flight by an on-board radar altimeter.
The missile's radar altimeter feeds measurements into a smaller buffer, and averages them out to produce a single measurement.
The series of such numbers a strip of measurements similar to those held in the maps. The two are compared to overlay the strip on the known map, and the positioning of the strip within the map produces a location and direction.
The guidance system then uses this information to correct the flight path of the missile.
DSMAC(Digital scene-mapping area correlator):
A series of photographs are taken from surveillance aircraft and are put into a carousel in the missile.
Another camera takes pictures out of the bottom of the missile.
A computer compares the two images and attempts to line up areas of high contrast.
This system is very slow and its role is being taken up by TERCOM.
Satellite navigation:
Another way to navigate a cruise missile is by using a satellite positioning system, such as GPS .
Satellite navigation systems are precise and cheap.
If the satellites are interfered with (e.g. destroyed) or if the satellite signal is interfered with (e.g. jammed), the satellite navigation system becomes inoperable.
The GPS-based navigation is useful in a conflict with a technologically unsophisticated adversary.
Advantages of Cruise missile:
The big advantage of the cruise missile is its smallness and cost.
Its small size also improved the weapon’s chances of penetration.
The map matching system (TERCOM) is combined with an inertial navigational system in a system called TAINS. This not only gets the cruise to its target but also with an accuracy.
Disadvantages of cruise missiles:
The lack of a human pilot means you can't re-use the thing.
Their low and slow flight means they can be engaged by a much wider variety of systems, including MANPADS and SAMs.
Currently cruise missiles are among the most expensive of single-use weapons, up to several million dollars apiece. However, they are cheaper than human pilots when total training and infrastructure costs are taken into account.
Guidance System used in cruise missile is a complex system which involves several systems working in tandem. it is essential that guidance system is properly designed for accurate interception of targets.
12-05-2011, 12:09 PM
Post: #3
RE: cruise missile technology
1. Introduction
A cruise missile is basically a small, pilotless airplane. Cruise missiles have an 8.5-foot (2.61-meter) wingspan, are powered by turbofan engines and can fly 500 to 1,000 miles (805 to 1,610 km) depending on the configuration. A cruise missile's job in life is to deliver a 1,000-pound (450-kg) high-explosive bomb to a precise location -- the target. The missile is destroyed when the bomb explodes. Cruise missiles come in a number of variations and can be launched from submarines, destroyers or aircraft.
Figure 1
Tomahawk Cruise missile
An unmanned self-propelled guided vehicle that sustains flight through aerodynamic lift for most of its flight path and whose primary mission is to place an ordnance or special payload on a target. This definition can include unmanned air ve-hicles (UAVs) and unmanned control-guided helicopters or aircraft.
2. History
In 1916, Lawrence Sperry patented and built an "aerial torpedo", a small biplane carrying a TNT charge, a Sperry autopilot and a barometric altitude control. Inspired by these experiments, the US Army developed a similar flying bomb called the Kettering Bug. In the period between the World Wars the United Kingdom developed the Larynx (Long Range Gun with Lynx Engine) which underwent a few flight tests in the 1920s. In the Soviet Union, Sergey Korolev headed the GIRD-06 cruise missile project from 1932–1939, which used a rocket-powered boost-glide design. The 06/III (RP-216) and 06/IV (RP-212) contained gyroscopic guidance systems.
Germany first deployed cruise style missiles, during World War II. The V-1(Ref. fig. 2) contained a gyroscopic guidance system and was propelled by a simple pulse-jet engine, the sound of which gave it the nickname of "buzz bomb". Accuracy was sufficient only for use against very large targets (the general area of a city). The V-1 and similar early weapons are often referred to as flying bombs.
Immediately after the war the United States Air Force had 21 different guided missile projects including would-be cruise missiles. All were cancelled by 1948 except four: the Air Material Command BANSHEE, the SM-62 Snark, the SM-64 Navaho, and the MGM-1 Matador. The BANSHEE design was similar to Operation Aphrodite; like Aphrodite it failed, and was canceled in April 1949.
During the Cold War period both the United States and the Soviet Union experimented further with the concept, deploying early cruise missiles from land, submarines and aircraft. The main outcome of the U.S. Navy submarine missile project was the SSM-N-8 Regulus missile(Ref. fig. 3), based upon the V-1.
The U.S. Air Force's first operational surface-to-surface missile was the winged, mobile, nuclear-capable MGM-1 Matador, also similar in concept to the V-1. Deployment overseas began in 1954, first to West Germany and later to the Republic of China (Taiwan) and South Korea. On November 7, 1956 U. S. Air Force Matador units in West Germany, whose missiles were capable of striking targets in the Warsaw Pact, deployed from their fixed day-to-day sites to unannounced dispersed launch locations. This alert was in response to the crisis posed by the Soviet attack on Hungary which suppressed the 1956 Hungarian Revolution.
Between 1957 and 1961 the United States followed an ambitious and well-funded program to develop a nuclear-powered cruise missile, Project Pluto. It was designed to fly below the enemy's radar at speeds above Mach 3 and carry a number of hydrogen bombs that it would drop on its path over enemy territory. Although the concept was proven sound and the 500 megawatt engine finished a successful test run in 1961, no airworthy device was ever completed. The project was finally abandoned in favor of ICBM development.
While ballistic missiles were the preferred weapons for land targets, heavy nuclear and conventional tipped cruise missiles were seen by the USSR as a primary weapon to destroy U.S. naval carrier battle groups. Large submarines (for example, Echo and Oscar classes) were developed to carry these weapons and shadow U.S. battle groups at sea, and large bombers (for example, Backfire, Bear, and Blackjack models) were equipped with the weapons in their air-launched cruise missile (ALCM) configuration.
Figure 2
The german V1 rocket
Figure 3
SSM-N-8 Regulus missile
3. General design
Cruise missiles generally consist of a guidance system, payload, and propulsion system, housed in an airframe with small wings and empennage for flight control(Ref. fig. 4 & 5). Payloads usually consist of a conventional warhead or a nuclear warhead. Cruise missiles tend to be propelled by a jet engine, turbofan engines being preferred due to their greater efficiency at low altitude and sub-sonic speed.

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